On April 24, 2023, Ukraine launched a combined attack incorporating aerial loitering munitions and uncrewed surface vessel water-borne IEDs against the port of Sevastopol, in the Crimean Peninsula, where the Russian Black Sea Fleet is based. The use of USVs as a means of warfare was first evidenced in September 2022, and since then, several attacks using Ukrainian USV WBIEDs have been documented, some more successful and others less so. In October 2022, the Russian fleet was attacked in the port of Sevastopol, apparently with a combination of aerial loitering munitions and maritime USV WBIEDs, in which the Ukrainians managed to damage a number of Russian vessels, including the flagship Grigorovich-class frigate, Admiral Makarov. Recently, it has become evident the Russian side has also started incorporating similar vehicles as remotely guided attack tools for use in the naval arena.
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