In mid-November 2022, Iranian social media channels on Telegram, YouTube and Twitter started disseminating instructions for the preparation of IEDs. This marks a progression since the start of the mass protests in September 2022, after the death of Mahsa Amini, a 22-year-old Kurdish Iranian woman who was arrested for wearing her hijab “improperly.” Mahsa was badly beaten by Iranian police and later died from her injuries. The new posts include various IED video tutorials in Farsi and photomontages written in Farsi with illustrative photos. Most of the content is associated with the protests – hashtags with resistance slogans or with the names and photos of martyred protesters. The introduction of IED instructions is an important development. However, the Iranian regime is far from losing control over the situation.
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